Schlagworte: Information Ethics

Comments on Ethical and Legal Issues

Prior to the hearing in the Parliament of the Federal Republic of Germany on 22 June 2016 from 4 – 6 pm, the contracted experts had sent their written comments on ethical and legal issues with respect to the use of robots and artificial intelligence. The video for the hearing can be accessed via The documents of Oliver Bendel (School of Business FHNW), Eric Hilgendorf (University of Würzburg), Norbert Elkman (Fraunhofer IPK) and Ryan Calo (University of Washington) were published in July on the website of the German Bundestag. Answering the question “Apart from legal questions, for example concerning responsibility and liability, where will ethical questions, in particular, also arise with regard to the use of artificial intelligence or as a result of the aggregation of information and algorithms?” the US scientist explained: “Robots and artificial intelligence raise just as many ethical questions as legal ones. We might ask, for instance, what sorts of activities we can ethically outsource to machines. Does Germany want to be a society that relegates the use of force, the education of children, or eldercare to robots? There are also serious challenges around the use of artificial intelligence to make material decisions about citizens in terms of minimizing bias and providing for transparency and accountability – issues already recognized to an extent by the EU Data Directive.” (Website German Bundestag) All documents (most of them in German) are available via

Abb.: Es entstehen immer mehr hybride Wesen und Vorgänge

NWO Responsible Innovation Programme

Prof. Dr. Oliver Bendel from the School of Business FHNW will act as an external reviewer for The Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO, the Dutch Research Council) and will assess the merits of a research proposal submitted under the NWO Responsible Innovation programme. The aim of this multidisciplinary programme is to explore the ethical and societal issues surrounding innovations like autonomous cars, electronic patient files and the smart energy meter. The NWO website declares: „Highly promising innovations can fail because ethical and societal questions are not taken into account in good time. … In the case of responsible innovation possible ethical and societal consequences of the innovation are already involved at an early stage. For this NWO has developed the Responsible Innovation research programme.“ (Website NWO) A new registration round started in June 2016. „The programme is for joint projects of researchers engaged in the humanities, science and the social and behavioural sciences. Together with companies and civil society organisations, they identify at the development stage of innovations the potential ethical and societal issues that may arise. Addressing these issues early on will increase support among stakeholders and also the likelihood of successful innovations.“ (Website NWO) More information via

Fig.: At the Universiteit Leiden

Information Cultures in the Digital Age

Jared Bielby announced in these days that “Information Cultures in the Digital Age: A Festschrift in Honor of Rafael Capurro” is complete “and set to be published by Springer in July 2016″ (Information via ICIE mailing list). “Matt Kelly and I have had the privilege of working with some of the most forward thinking scholars of the field during our time as editors for this very important volume on information culture and practice.” (Information via ICIE mailing list) The Co-chair of the International Center for Information Ethics declared: “For several decades Rafael Capurro has been at the forefront of defining the relationship between information and modernity through both phenomenological and ethical formulations. In exploring both of these themes Capurro has re-vivified the transcultural and intercultural expressions of how we bring an understanding of information to bear on scientific knowledge production and intermediation. Capurro has long stressed the need to look deeply into how we contextualize the information problems that scientific society creates for us and to re-incorporate a pragmatic dimension into our response that provides a balance to the cognitive turn in information science.” (Information via ICIE mailing list) With contributions from 35 scholars from 15 countries, the book “focuses on the culture and philosophy of information, information ethics, the relationship of information to message, the historic and semiotic understanding of information, the relationship of information to power and the future of information education” (Information via ICIE mailing list). Further information at

Fig.: Selfies belong to the digital age

Cyber-Human Systems

In these days, the Hasler Foundation presents the new research program “Cyber-Human Systems”, with a budget of 5 millions Swiss francs. Some information from the website: “Computing plays an ever increasing role in all aspects of our life. As a consequence, society and information technology continuously interact and influence each other in a complex process. In this context, cyber-human system research investigates the increasingly coupled relationship between humans and computing with the broad goal of advancing human capabilities. Novel models, methods, theories and technological innovations in information technology are developed to increase our understanding of this new class of computing systems and to exploit their large economical and societal potential.” (Website Hasler) The text continues: “Research in cyber-human systems addresses specifically all aspects close to the interface between humans and information technology. It is concerned with novel computing platforms such as wearable, textile-integrated and mobile devices or even person-embedded sensors and computers. The research also explores systems that interact with users through multiple modalities such as new interaction techniques, computer displays and even brain-machine interfaces. Algorithmic aspects in cyber-human systems concentrate on local data processing in smart devices at the network edge rather than sending all data to the cloud for processing.” According to a press release, research subjects include interfaces between digital and human world, computing like machine learning at the edge and analysis of economic and societal consequences. More information via

Fig.: A cyborg girl

Commercial Drones in Switzerland

Commercial drones can be used for the transport of components and the good delivering as well as for the monitoring of consumers. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) often come in combination with cameras and other equipment and are spies in the form of high-tech products. Sometimes, they drop out of the sky and hurt people. In Zurich, private drones seem to be a big problem for safety and security, and the laws have been tightened and improved. Remote-controlled commercial drones shall have cameras, gripper arms or a transportation space. In a current project, three master students of the School of Business (University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland FHNW) try to answer the following questions: What kinds of drones are available for commercial purposes? In which ways these UAV can be used? What are the technical challenges and possibilities? What are the problems from the perspective of information ethics? What are the general challenges in Switzerland? The results are expected by the end of summer 2016. Prof. Dr. Oliver Bendel is the contact for all questions concerning the research project and possible follow-up activities.

Fig.: A drone in the air

Die 4. Revolution

Luciano Floridi ist Professor für Philosophie und Informationsethik an der Universität Oxford. Sechs Jahre lang hatte er den “UNESCO Chair in Information and Computer Ethics” inne. Zurzeit ist er Mitglied des Expertenrats, der Google bei der Umsetzung des Rechts auf Vergessenwerden berät. Dieses, auch (eher missverständlich) Recht auf Vergessen genannt, steht in einem engen Zusammenhang mit der informationellen Autonomie. 2013 erschien “The Ethics of Information” (Oxford University Press), 2014 “The Fourth Revolution: How the Infosphere is Reshaping Human Reality” im selben Verlag. Suhrkamp wird dieses Buch im Oktober 2015 unter dem Titel “Die 4. Revolution: Wie die Infosphäre unser Leben verändert” auf den Markt bringen. In der schwer verständlichen Produktbeschreibung ist von Menschen die Rede, die vorgeschichtlich, geschichtlich und hypergeschichtlich leben, letztere damit “in Gesellschaften und Lebenswelten, wo die IKT und ihre Möglichkeiten der Datenverarbeitung nicht bloß wichtige, sondern essenzielle Voraussetzungen für die Erhaltung und weitere Förderung des Wohlstands aller und jedes Einzelnen sowie der gedeihlichen Entwicklung insgesamt sind” (Buchinformation Suhrkamp).

Abb.: Evolution und Revolution

Call for Papers zu “Ethics of Big Data”

Die Zeitschrift International Review of Information Ethics hat ihren Call for Papers zu “Ethics of Big Data” veröffentlicht. Darin heißt es: “This issue of IRIE attempts to explore the political, social, and ethical dimensions of big data.” (Website IRIE) Mögliche Themen sind u.a. “Big data and emerging regimes of mass surveillance”, “Big data and mass marketing”, “Big data and mass communication”, “Big data and counter-terrorism, policing and national security” und “Online privacy”. Gastherausgeber sind Prof. Dr. Klaus Wiegerling, Dr. Michael Nerukar und Christian Wadephul vom Institut für Technikfolgenabschätzung und Systemanalyse (ITAS) am Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT). An Michael Nerukar können auch Fragen gerichtet werden ( Die Deadline für Extended Abstracts ist der 30. September 2015. Weitere Informationen über

Die Industrie 4.0 aus ethischer Sicht

Der Artikel “Die Industrie 4.0 aus ethischer Sicht” erscheint am 23. Juli 2015 in der Zeitschrift HMD Praxis der Wirtschaftsinformatik, als “Online-First”-Artikel auf SpringerLink. Die deutsche Zusammenfassung: “Der vorliegende Beitrag arbeitet die wesentlichen Merkmale der Industrie 4.0 heraus und setzt sie ins Verhältnis zur Ethik. Es interessieren vor allem Bereichsethiken wie Informations-, Technik- und Wirtschaftsethik. Am Rande wird auf die Maschinenethik eingegangen, im Zusammenhang mit der sozialen Robotik. Es zeigt sich, dass die Industrie 4.0 neben ihren Chancen, die u. a. ökonomische und technische Aspekte betreffen, auch Risiken beinhaltet, denen rechtzeitig in Wort und Tat begegnet werden muss.” Das englische Abstract: “This article highlights the essential features of the industry 4.0 and puts them in relation to ethics. Of special interest are the fields of applied ethics such as information, technology and business ethics. Machine ethics is mentioned in passing in connection with social robotics. It is evident that the industry 4.0 in addition to opportunities, affecting among other things economic and technical aspects, includes also risks which must be addressed in word and deed in a timely manner.” Weitere Informationen über

Abb.: Ihr Verhalten kann Einfluss auf die Produktion haben

Assistenzsysteme helfen Tieren

Am 9. Oktober 2014 ist der Artikel “Advanced Driver Assistance Systems and Animals” von Oliver Bendel in der Zeitschrift Künstliche Intelligenz erschienen. Im Abstract heißt es: “Advanced driver assistance systems are widely used. Some support and inform the driver. Others relieve him or her of certain tasks – and transform the human-guided system into a semi-autonomous one. For some years also fully autonomous systems have been on the roads, so-called self-driving cars, as prototypes of companies and within research projects. From the perspective of ethics – both of the special fields of ethics like animal ethics, information ethics and technology ethics and of machine ethics which can be understood as a counterpart to human ethics – advanced driver assistance systems raise various questions. The aim of this paper is to derive suggestions from animal ethics and other disciplines for the improvement and development of the systems. The basis are literature analysis and own classifications and considerations. The result is that there are many possibilities to expand existing systems and to develop new functions in the context with the aim to reduce the number of animal victims.” Der Artikel kann über bezogen werden.

Abb.: Die Katze unter dem Auto

Robot Car

Der Robot Car findet seinen Weg. Er hupt und weicht aus. Er bleibt stehen, neugierig, verspielt. Vor einem Kind oder einer Kuh. Er verhandelt mit anderen Fahrzeugen, wenn es um die Vorfahrt geht oder einen Unfall gegeben hat, er schickt Nachrichten an die Polizei, die Werkstatt und den Hersteller. Der Artikel “Cloud am Steuer”, der vor einiger Zeit in der GDI Impuls erschienen ist, kann nun kostenlos als PDF heruntergeladen werden. Ein Dank geht an das Gottlieb Duttweiler Institute – und den Autor Christian Rauch. Wenn Roboter über die Straßen steuern, so fragt er, “welche ethischen und rechtlichen Konsequenzen hat das”? Beantwortet wird das von Patrick Lin, Roboter- und Maschinenethiker an der California Polytechnic State University, und Oliver Bendel, Wirtschaftsinformatiker, Informationsethiker und Maschinenethiker an der Hochschule für Wirtschaft FHNW.

Abb.: Auto und Kuh

Call zur Ethik des Internets der Dinge

Die International Review of Information Ethics (IRIE) hat einen Call for Papers zum Thema “Ethics for the Internet of Things” veröffentlicht. Deadline für die Einreichung der Abstracts ist der 31. August 2014. Auf der Website der Zeitschrift heißt es: “The 22nd issue of IRIE will tackle the ethical challenge of the Internet of Things and therefore furnish a contribution to the establishment of an ethics for it. This ethics is anchored in the field of information ethics, yet it radicalizes to a certain degree the fundamental issues in this field, insofar as the entire mesosphere appears as a sphere shaped by information and its technologies. And hence, the boundaries then disappear between electronic technology and what underpins it.” Mögliche Themen seien “Privacy in the IoT”, “Access to beneficial use of IoT and social justice”, “Establishment of trust in the IoT” und “Status of agents and agency in the IoT”. Gastherausgeber sind Hektor Haarkötter und Felix Weil. Weitere Informationen über

“Information ethics can give a new impetus”

In den VμE-Nachrichten, herausgegeben vom Fraunhofer-Verbund Mikroelektronik, erschien im Sommer 2013 ein Interview zu Informations- und Maschinenethik. Oliver Bendel erklärte, was man sich unter diesen Disziplinen vorstellen kann, ging auf die Einflussmöglichkeiten von Forschern ein und wünschte sich die Stärkung der philosophischen Ethik gegenüber der theologischen bzw. theonomen. Inzwischen ist die englische Version der Zeitschrift erschienen, mitsamt dem Interview auf den Seiten 8 und 9. Es wird mit folgenden Worten eingeleitet: “Technological progress opens up new opportunities for action that make our lives safer and more comfortable – as long as we take advantage of it responsibly. VμE spoke to the commercial computer scientist and author Prof. Oliver Bendel about the ethical dimension of research, and current issues.” Die vollständige englischsprachige Zeitschrift ist als PDF verfügbar.

Auf dem Weg zu einer Maschinenethik

Am 15. März 2013 trug Oliver Bendel bei der European TA Conference (PACITA Conference) in Prag zur Maschinenethik vor, im Rahmen der Session Ethical Aspects of TA, die auf der Website wie folgt beschrieben wird: “Which ethical dilemmas are evident in selecting technologies? This session dares a tour d’horizon of ethical expertise and TA and focuses on ethical questions in selecting health technologies, on autonomous machines tested as agents or robots, on conditions for gaining acceptance of technological development and on social sustainability.” Insgesamt waren vier Vorträge vorgesehen, von denen drei gehalten wurden: Dr. Miriam Ines Siebzehner referierte zu “Ethical dilemmas in selecting health-care technologies in Israel”, Prof. Dr. Oliver Bendel zu “Towards a Machine Ethics”, Dr. Petr Machleidt zu “Technology assessment as applied ethics of technology in the Czech Republic”. Die Folien zu den Vorträgen sind seit Ende März 2013 über erhältlich. Oliver Bendel leitete mit folgenden Worten ein: “In this presentation the young field of machine ethics is explored. Technology assessment (TA) is concerned with the consequences of technical developments, and some of its topics have moral dimensions. It could be valuable for TA to keep an eye on machine ethics. The main question of this presentation is whether and how it is possible to implement morality into autonomous machines.” Er definierte die Maschinenethik, strukturierte ihr Anwendungsfeld, erklärte, welche normativen Modelle sich besonders gut für eine Implementierung eignen, und widmete sich technischen Details, zu denen Dr. Gwendolin Wilke, eine Expertin für Fuzzylogik, beigetragen hatte. Oliver Bendel schloss mit folgender Einschätzung: “The speaker is sceptical about the possibility of implementing a moral code in a machine in a satisfactory manner. Moreover, the requirements of machine processing could be different from system to system (and even from situation to situation), and an approach which works well in one environment can fail in another. However, there will be substantial interest from the fields of industry and military that would like to bring their solutions into the market respectively to the areas of conflict, and, in a different sense, of philosophy to solve some of the central questions. To say it from the philosophical point of view: Machine ethics will be the touchstone of ethics in general.”

Roboter auf Tour

25 Jahre AI Lab Zürich werden gefeiert. Es kommen Roboter aus aller Welt. Und sicherlich Menschen aus dem ganzen Land. Mit Blick auf den 9. März 2013 wird auf der Website mit folgenden Worten geworben: “Das AI Lab lädt die modernsten Roboter weltweit nach Zürich ein. Nebst einem Weltrekordversuch wird Roboy präsentiert: das erste Roboterkind der Schweiz! Ausserdem haben Sie die Gelegenheit, berühmte Roboter aus Hollywood-Filmen persönlich zu treffen sowie Baxter, Geminoid, Kenshiro und viele weitere revolutionäre Roboter kennenzulernen.” Am Tag davor, am 8. März, findet von 9.00 bis 17.00 Uhr im Café Sphères ein wissenschaftliches Symposium statt, eröffnet von Rolf Pfeifer persönlich; es “präsentieren Spitzenforscher aus der ganzen Welt ihre Ideen zu Robotik und wie wir in Zukunft mit diesen Maschinen zusammenleben werden”. Von 16.20 bis 17.30 Uhr diskutieren Experten zu Fragen wie: “Will, in 10 years time, robots take over care for the elderly? Personal service robots for everyone in the near future: myth or reality?” Und man widmet sich informations- und maschinenethischen Themen: “Ethical implications of home robots, personal robots and human sexuality”. Weitere Informationen zu “Robots on Tour” (“World Congress and Exhibition of Robots, Humanoids, Cyborgs and more”) finden sich auf der angegebenen Website.

Abb.: Figuren aus dem Zyklus “Bizzarie di varie figure“ von Giovanni Battista Braccelli

Towards a Machine Ethics

Am 15. März 2013 trägt Oliver Bendel bei der European TA Conference in Prag zum Thema “Towards a Machine Ethics” vor. Das Abstract, das im Frühjahr im Tagungsband veröffentlicht wird, hebt mit den Worten an: “There is an increasing use of autonomous machines such as agents, chatbots, algorithmic trading computers, robots of different stripes and unmanned ground or air vehicles. They populate the modern world like legendary figures and artificial creatures in Greek mythology – with the main difference being that they are real in the narrow sense of the word. Some are only partially autonomous (acting under human command) while others are completely autonomous within their area of action. A genuinely autonomous machine should be able to act in a moral way, able to make decisions that are good for humans, animals and the environment. But what does it mean for machines to behave morally? Should they learn moral rules? Should they evaluate the consequences of their acts? Or should they become a virtuous character, following Aristotle? How is it possible to implement the classical normative models of ethics and is there a need for new ones?” Der erste, zweite und dritte Abschnitt des Beitrags wird knapp zusammengefasst; dann wird auf den vierten eingegangen: “Fourthly, the paper tries to answer the question if and how it is possible to implement the classical normative models of ethics and which models should be preferred. Seven important normative approaches are described and estimated relating to their suitability for machine processing. Then the focus shifts to duty-based ethics, ethics of responsibility and virtue ethics that seem to be serious candidates. With a short technical analysis it can be shown that they fit to machine processing, apart from some limitations. The most promising approach may be the combination of the selected normative models. It is not only similar in the ‘normal’ human ethics, but also an opportunity to balance out weaknesses of the autonomous machines and to allow them alternatives. In addition, other methods like orientation on reference persons and social media evaluation could be used.” Am Ende werden Wichtigkeit und Schwierigkeit des jungen Forschungsgebiets der Maschinenethik gleichermaßen betont und persönliche und allgemeine Einschätzungen gegeben.